In his session on the current state of Hadoop Tom went into a little more detail not only on the features released in the latest release or on the roadmap for upcoming releases (including Kerberos based security, append support, warm standby namenode and others).
He also gave a very interesting view on the current Hadoop ecosystem. More and more projects are currently being created that either extend Hadoop or are built on top of Hadoop. Several of these are being run as projects at the Apache Software Foundation, however some are available outside of Apache only. Using graphviz he created a graph of projects depending on or extending Hadoop and from that provided a rough classification of these projects.
As to be expected HDFS and Map/Reduce are part of the very basis of this ecosystem. Right next to them sits zookeeper
, a distributed coordination and looking service.
Storage systems extending the capabilities of HDFS include HBase
that adds random read/write as well as realtime access to the otherwise batch-oriented distributed file-system. With PIG
and Cascading three projects are making it easier to formulate complex queries for Hadoop. Among the three, PIG is mainly focussed on expressing data filtering and processing, with SQL support being added over time as well. Hive came from the need for SQL formulation on Hadoop clusters. Cascading goes a slightly different way, providing a Java API for easier query formulation. The new kid on the block sort of is Plume, a project initiated by Ted Dunning that has the goal of coming up with a Map/Reduce abstraction layer inspired by Google's Flume Java publication.
There are several projects for data import into HDFS. Sqoop can be used for interfacing with RDMBS. Chukwa and Flume deals with feeding log data into the filesystem. For general co-ordination and workflow orchestration there is the release of Oozie, originally developed at Yahoo! as well as support for workflow definition in Cascading.
When storing data in Hadoop it is a common requirement to find a compact, structured representation of the data to store. Though human readable, xml files are not very compact. However when using any binary format, schema evolution commonly is a problem: Adding, renaming or deleting fields in most cases causes the need to upgrade all code interacting with the data as well as re-formatting already stored data. With Thrift, Avro and Protocol Buffers there are three options available for storing data in a compact, structured binary format. All three projects come with support for schema evolution by providing users no only to deal with missing data but also by providing a means to map old to new fields and vice versa.